The Worldwide Fuel Charter provides fuel quality recommendations published by the members of the Worldwide Fuel Charter Com-mittee as a service to worldwide legislators, fuel users and producers. The Charter imposes no obligation on any users or producers of fuel, and it does not prohibit useof any engine or vehicle technology or design, fuel, or fuel quality specification.
The Charter was first established in to increase understanding of the fuel quality needs of motor vehicle and engine technologies and topromote fuel quality harmonisation worldwide in accordance with those needs.
Importantly, the Chartermatches fuel specifications to the vehicle and engine specifications required to meet various customer needsaround the world. The Fifth Edition introduces Category 5 for markets with highly advanced requirements for emission controland fuel efficiency.
As many countries take steps to require vehicles and engines to meet strict fuel economystandards in addition to stringent emission standards, Category 5, which raises the minimum research octanenumber RON to 95, will enable some gasoline technologies that can help increase vehicle and engineefficiency.
For diesel fuel, this category establishes a high quality hydrocarbon-only specification that takesadvantage of the characteristics of certain advanced biofuels, including hydrotreated vegetable oil HVO and Biomass-to-Liquid BTLprovided all other specifications are respected and the resulting blend meetsdefined legislated limits. Other changes from the previous edition include a new test method for trace metals and an updated gasolinevolatility table.
Sulphur-free and metal-free fuels remain criticalprerequisites for ultraclean, efficient and durable emission control systems. The most advanced vehicles andengines require the best fuel quality — as represented in Category 5 — to meet their design potential. We appreciate the many comments submitted on this new edition of the Charter; they have helped makeit a better document. We look forward to working with you to support harmonised specifications for thecontinued benefit of society.
These recommendations allow vehicle and engine manufacturers to provide consistent fuel quality advice to policymakers who may want to control vehicle or engine emissions, whether for the first time or to expand already implemented legislation. Regardless of the legislative context, access to the recommended fuels will benefit consumers and their communities in all markets around the world.
Category 4 fuels enable sophisticated NOx and particulate matter after-treatment technologies. Requirements for all markets: Fuel in the market will meet the quality specifications only if blendstock quality is monitored and good management practices are used.
Engine and vehicle technologies typically achieve improved performance and lower emissions with higher category fuels. These fuel quality recommendations are for the properties of the finished fuel as provided to the customer.
Internal quality control methods are not dictated or restricted as long as the fuel meets these specifications. Where national requirements are more severe than these recommendations, those national limits have to be met. To meet ongoing environmental, energy and customer challenges, vehicle and engine manufacturers will continue to develop and introduce advanced and innovative propulsion technologies that may require changes in fuel quality.
Category revisions will occur as needed to reflect such changes in technology, as well as in petroleum refining, test methods and global market conditions. Lower sulphur content preferred for catalyst-equipped vehicles. Another undesirable element is Cl.
Metal-containing additives are acceptable only for valve seat protection in non-catalyst cars; in this case, potassium-based additives are recommended. No intentional addition of metal-based additives is allowed.
Methanol is not permitted. Fuel pump labelling is recommended for gasoline-ethanol blends to enable customers to determine if their vehicles can use the fuel. Another undesirable element is Cl. Enables technologiesthat can help increase vehicle and engine efficiency, in addition to enabling sophisticated NOx and particulatematter after-treatment technologies. Notes:Ambient temperature ranges listed represent the condition the vehicle operator will encounter.
The D. The need for and the magnitude of the correction will be determined as more data become available. Preliminary data indicate thatvehicles may need further volatility controls beyond what is currently specified. Where multiple methods are indicated, the manufacturer shouldassure the product conforms to the most precise method listed.
Cetane Number When cetane improvers are used, the estimated Cetane Number must be greater than or equal to the specified value and the Cetane Index must be greater than or equal to the number in parenthesis.Diesel engines have often been tarnished with the reputation that they are the noisy, dirty, and antiquated smoke billowing animals of the engine world.
Advanced electronic engine management systems, improvements in fuel injection design, air flow and fuel management, along with post combustion treatments have overcome many of these previous design shortfalls and the resulting stigma that was associated with these engines.
In fact, current diesel engine designs produce less harmful emissions per given volume of fuel burned than a gasoline powered engine of similar horsepower. The introduction of these new technologies has, however, presented the industry with a number of additional challenges that must be considered to maintain a reliable engine. Such enormous gains have not occurred without some pretty remarkable technological advances in engine design along with advancements in fuel injection and the actual science behind the internal combustion process.
The diesel engine has been a vital workhorse for many industries around the world, powering large trucks, farm equipment, recreational vehicles, railroad equipment, marine vessels, construction, and mining fleets. Diesel engine exhausts do, however, contain harmful pollutants in a complex mixture of emission gases and particulates, which are known to be harmful to the environment and humans.
These emissions include:. These two types of emissions are inversely related; meaning a reduction in one generally causes an increase in the other. Such a relationship complicates the management of them.
A huge step forward was taken in when standards issued by the USA EPA directed very large reductions in exhaust emissions for model year heavy-duty engines. These tiered structures now govern new static and off-road engines and equipment, and establish progressively lower allowable emissions of NOx and DPM. Each progression of standard level Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3 and Tier 4 required engines to produce lower emissions, and necessitated more advanced technology than the previous generation.
The pressure for injection is developed by the high-pressure fuel pump 1which is mechanically operated by the engine. A common fuel rail 3 connects each injector from the fuel pump; hence where the terminology of Common Rail originated.
This feature ensures that fuel droplets are atomized the moment they leave the injector nozzle. As EUI systems must develop the fuel pressure during the injection event, they have a tendency to form larger droplets at the start and end of each injection event.
HPCR injection systems are also able to regulate fuel injection pressure based on engine requirements, speed, and duty using the engine ECU combined with the fuel pump. The modern HPCR fuel injector is unlike its EUI predecessor, and to understand why they are more susceptible to contamination related problems is important to appreciate how they function during engine operation. Unlike EUI systems, which typically inject fuel once or twice per engine revolution, HPCR fuel injectors can provide up to 5 injection events per single compression stroke of the engine.
Putting this into perspective, with a large high-speed diesel engine operating at RPM, the fuel injector is capable of injecting fuel into the combustion chamber in varying quantities depending on the ECU outputs, up to 1, times per minute, or 29 times per second with the fuel exiting the injector tip at speeds in excess of miles per hour.
In order to overcome the challenges of operating a reliable fuel system, a paradigm shift must be made in the way consumers view the diesel fuel and its function within the engine. Historically, consumers of diesel fuel have generally purchased, stored, and distributed the fuel to machines, engines or marine vessels as required with little thought put into fuel contamination control. Over the past 60 years, little has changed in the way many diesel engine owners and operators have undertaken this process.
However, with the introduction of these new engines with advanced fuel injection systems, many users are experiencing a high frequency of failures, decreased availability, and increased downtime, as well as cost challenges from a technology that promised to improve operational profitability. Along with the introduction of HPCR injection systems, we are now starting to see a parallel increase in diesel fuel related problems within many industries including Power Generation, Marine, Agriculture, and Mining.
Reasons to be paranoid about diesel
Little, however, has been done to educate the end user or provide them with real technical information in relation to the root cause of the problems. Most users are now finding that they are treating the symptoms of these failures rather than actually treating the root cause of them.
Diesel engines are used in a wide variety of applications around the world and with some, they can literally mean life or death or perhaps millions in lost revenue. Such engines are typically found in Mission Critical applications such as data collection or data back-up facilities, hospitals, first responders, and the military.18 sign bracket
The cost through poor management of the engine injector system is far too great. Historically, consumers of diesel fuel have generally purchased, stored, and distributed the fuel to machines, engines or marine vessels as required with little thought put into contamination control.
Such engines are typically found in Mission Critical applications such as data collection or data back-up facilities, hospitals, and the military. Since its inception, the charter has established a minimum cleanliness level for each of the diesel fuels under various available categories around the world. Despite the enormous advances in fuel injection technology, and the demands under which HPCR Fuel Injection systems operate, increasing the fuel cleanliness requirements is needed to assure optimal performance and longevity of system components.
The following table shows how the characteristics of the more advanced HPCR systems have changed. This table shows that fuel injector critical clearances have halved and fuel pressures have doubled yet the level of fuel cleanliness being specified has not been altered in accordance with such advancements.
In fact, the same cleanliness levels specified in are still being used today despite these magnificent technological advancements.Aug 22, Feature Articles. Typically diesel fuel is delivered to the mine by a tanker truck. A set of to gpm pumps places the fuel in a large storage system. From the main storage tanks, the fuel is transferred to localized secondary storage tanks before reaching the fuel islands or filling stations where the equipment is refueled.
At all of these transfer points, filtration is recommended. Some mines use large bulk filtration systems initially combined with a water separator or coalescer. These systems can handle high flow rates and large contaminant loads.
At the end of the line, point-of-use PoU filtration can be installed at the equipment fueling point. The diesel engines have onboard filtration systems.Loader joystick knob
That is roughly equivalent to a gravimetric level of 20 mg of dirt per liter of fuel. For a mine usingliters per day lpd of fuel, over the course of a year, the mine is pumping kg of dirt through the fuel supply chain.
Fuel this dirty should never find its way directly to the trucks and shovels. The onboard fuel filters will plug. Proper upstream filtration can remove most of this contamination. This is the fuel cleanliness level that is suggested by the worldwide fuel charter as an incoming fuel cleanliness level.
This would still yield 50 kg per year of dirt for a mine burninglpd. Water can also be a problem. Typical diesel fuel saturates around ppm of water. Anything above that level would be free water, either droplets or emulsified water that will settle out in the tanks.
A mine receiving fuel with 5, ppm water 0. Diesel Injection Systems The critical components in the pit are the fuel injectors on the diesel engines. They determine how much fuel gets injected and control the combustion process in the cylinders. High pressure common rail HPCR fuel injectors require very high fuel cleanliness levels, much higher than the older electronic unit injectors EUIas much as 30 times cleaner. To attain that level of fuel cleanliness, miners need to be sure they are removing contamination at every step along the fuel supply chain.
As the name implies, the injector pressures in these systems are high, as much as 40, psi. The clearances are relatively small 2 micronsbecause these injectors act like valves opening and closing up to 70 times per second. Multiple injection events take place for every rotation of the crankshaft. This controls the emission levels and how well the fuel burns.Diesel and Biodiesel fuels may leave a refinery clean, but fuel quality can vary at the time it is dispensed due to contamination accumulated during transport and storage.
This is especially challenging at remote sites such as mining sites, terminals, power generation, and retailers. As diesel engines adopt more efficient High-Pressure Common Rail HPCR systems, demands for removal of abrasive particles smaller than 6 microns are rapidly becoming a standard.
Clean diesel fuel plays a vital role in reducing maintenance and overall operating cost. Solid contaminants in fluid systems vary in size, shape, form and quantity. The most damaging contaminants in hydraulic systems are normally between 6 and 14 microns, and therefore cannot be seen by the naked eye.
Parker has provided a contamination guidebook which is aimed at engineers, technicians and quality control personnel involved in contamination control. Its purpose is to make available accepted and widely-used cleanliness specification levels for liquid samples. The tables in this guide allow users of using automatic portable particle counters to see the relationship between raw particle counts at various sizes and the reporting code numbers of various contamination standards.
ISO standard provides a way of summarizing the distribution of contaminants in a fluid by counting the particles per ml sample of hydraulic fluid: the figures are cumulative. To make the numbers less cumbersome, they are converted to number codes, as in the following table.
Fifth Edition WORLDWIDE FUEL CHARTER - ACEA
Given the mining environment, meeting downstream ISO Cleanliness Standards for bulk fuel storage, dispensing, and during transfer can be challenging. Our filtration and separation solutions are designed to remove contaminants so that the fuel supplied to customers at distribution meet or exceed original manufacturer specifications.
Our filtration and separation products are used to remove particulate and water and to ensure that fuel quality meets engine ISO Cleanliness Standards in order to assure reliability. Transportation - Fuel is the number one operating cost for transportation fleets. The trucking and transportation industry depend upon the reliability of the diesel engines and the diesel fuel. Poor fuel quality directly affects maintenance cost, fuel expenditure, fuel efficiency and overall operating costs.
From monitoring the quality of the fuel source to ensuring that engines utilize fuels that meet ISO Cleanliness Standards, Velcon provides solutions to help manage and meet your diesel fuel needs. Retail - Retailers rely on their fuel suppliers to provide quality fuels that meet regulatory requirements and consumer demands.
Nevertheless, fuel stored and transported can acquire particulate and water contaminants that lower the quality below required specifications. Providing high-quality fuel to the modern high-pressure common rail fuel injection systems is imperative to avoid costly downtime and engine repair.
Have a question about Parker products or services? Blog Home Contact Parker. Monday, September 19, by Filtration Team. Guide to contamination standards Solid contaminants in fluid systems vary in size, shape, form and quantity. Subscribe to This Team. Manage Email Subscriptions. Parker Support Support. Tweets by Parker.You can also order printed copies by sending your request to MyCleanDiesel donaldson. Alternative Fuels Data Center. American Society for Testing and Materials.
Australia- Department of Infrastructure. Auto Alliance. Canadian Fuels Association. Global Biofuels Center. Japan - Association for Petroleum Technology. National Biodiesel Board. National Fluid Power Association. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Oil Refining Learning Center. Petroleum Marketers Association of America. The Energy Institute Institute of Petroleum. Western Petroleum Manufacturers Association. World Refining and Fuels Service.
Bulk Service Truck. Clean Fuel Equals Big Savings. Minimize Fleet Downtime. Paving the Road to Decreased Downtime. Compact Clean Diesel Filter. DBB Fuel Filter. Dual Filter Head.Scuole suzzara pubbliche e private
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Clean Diesel Kits. Diesel Exhaust Fluid Filter. Why Filter Fuel? Australia - Fuel Quality Standards. European Committee for Standardization.
Fuel and Emissions Standards by Country. Worldwide Fuel Charter 5th Edition. Biodiesel-Mono Alkyl Esters.Simply put, emissions regulations are having a bigger impact on filtration than previously imagined. The widely accepted specification in the United States for diesel-fuel characteristics—American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D—addresses fuel cleanliness only by limiting sediment and water combined to ppm. Reducing particulates from a 22 code to a 12 code means that the average count of particles 4 microns and larger drops from 30, to 30 in each milliliter of fuel.
Fuel refiners produce a product that meets the ASTM spec, then place it the pipeline.Common Rail Diesel Fuel System Cleanliness
Refiners could invest in the most up-to-date filtration possible, but as soon as they place fuel in the pipeline, they essentially lose control—and nobody wants to sign up for anything not in their control.
They maintain that they have fulfilled their obligation to clients by delivering a product meeting ASTM standards. It should be handled at ASTM, because it deals with diesel fuel standards and entails an examination of the entire fuel supply chain, rather than a specific segment in isolation.
After fuel is produced, cleanliness falls upon others as housekeeping issues—not on ASTM. Caught between engine manufacturers, who call for using spotlessly clean fuel in their products, and fuel marketers, who rightly insist that they are delivering a product that meets current industry standards, are equipment owners.
Essentially, as long as fuel meets the prescribed ASTM chemical and physical requirements, absolutely no one on the supply side has any incentive or initiative to do anything more than what ASTM requires.
That said, Dennis is quick to point out that many in the fuel-using community do recognize the larger scope of the issue and the implications involved:. Diesel fuel is a commodity that commands such fear, that even the suspicion of a lack of availability ripples markets nationwide. The knowledge gap between these groups is increasing at the same rate as advanced engine technologies are being employed.
ISO already has the necessary standards—we work with them every day. Going to the end user, as Grossbauer says, involves managing both on-engine filtration and managing fuel between its delivery by a bulk tanker and its being dispensed into a machine.
The challenge becomes hitting that target under real-world conditions—in the presence of vibration, fluctuating flow, and all the factors that make filtration difficult. But the filtration industry has met those challenges.
Added to the difficulty of filtration efficiency, though, is the real-world challenge of space; equipment manufacturers do not have unlimited under-hood room to accommodate filtration. Compounding the problem of short filter life and the possible cause of injector deposits resulting in over-fueling if they reach injectors are various organic substances, which are not dirt, says Grossbauer, but are related, perhaps, to such sources as glycerin in bio-fuel blends or performance additives—corrosion inhibitors, lubricity improvers and the like.
Recognizing the critical issue of on-engine filtration, some machine owners have installed supplemental filtration systems and some have switched to premium filters that use advanced synthetic media and possibly exceed OEM requirements, reasoning that the best filters are the cheapest engine insurance at any cost.As emission regulations tighten up and diesel gets more biocontent, Nigel Calder warns of potentially dire consequences for new yacht engines.Golden ratio room calculator
Sailors are vulnerable because fuel sits in our tanks for months or years at a time Credit: Time Inc. In recent years, many sailors have expressed concerns to me about their vulnerability to unrepairable-at-sea engine failure, about electronic control systems, and about high-pressure common rail HCPR injector systems and other modern engine technologies landing on our yachts.
My response has been that there is no need to be concerned, as we have had this kind of technology in our cars for years. Engine design and evolution may cause problems for boat owners in the future. There are millions of HPCR engines in service in cars and trucks, which would suggest there is no problem, but given the incredibly tight tolerances necessary in the fuel supply, sailors are peculiarly vulnerable because we take on fuel from many different places all over the world with variable cleanliness and chemical properties and we then frequently let this fuel sit in our tanks for months, and sometimes years, at a time.
Progressively stricter emissions regulations over the past couple of decades have driven, and continue to drive, radical changes in diesel fuel supplies and in diesel engine fuel injection technology. These changes have profound consequences for boat owners now and in the future. A typical secondary filter supplied by the engine manufacturer on a small marine diesel. Without extra primary filtration, this is completely inadequate for cleaning up the fuel supply and protecting the engine.
The rapid pace of change is producing some unforeseen side effects including the Volkswagen emissions test cheating scandal.
In particular, changes in the chemistry of diesel fuel and the nature of injection processes are creating challenges for the fuel distribution and filtration industries which are not always well met, and which have outpaced the ability of regulatory agencies to keep up. The result is a significant, and potentially expensive, vulnerability for end users, especially for boat owners with new diesel engines.
Older engines still need clean fuel, but not to the level of HPCR systems.
At one time, diesel fuels contained up to 40, parts per million ppm of sulphur. Starting in the s, allowable nitrogen oxides NOx and particulate matter PM emissions for road vehicles were progressively lowered. The new emissions levels could only be met with exhaust after-treatment systems that would be damaged by even small amounts of sulphur, so sulphur limits were steadily lowered to 10ppm — what is known as ultra low sulphur diesel ULSD.
Various additives are put into ULSD to restore the lost properties. Collectively, these are known as surfactants.
Most engine manufacturers will now guarantee conventional injection systems with B20 biodiesel but may limit high-pressure systems see below to B5. Biodiesel has significant benefits compared to petro-diesel, notably lowered exhaust pollutants and better lubricity. One of the responses to ever tougher NOx and PM emissions limits has been the introduction of high-pressure fuel injection systems, notably HPCR, in ever lower horsepower engines.
Whereas the pressure in conventional injection systems rarely exceeds 5, psi barit is not uncommon to see 30, psi 2, bar on HPCR engines, with some as high as 40, psi 2, bar.
Predictions are that pressures may go as high as a staggering 60, psi 4, bar. These kinds of pressures require orifice sizes, clearances and machining tolerances to within microns, where a micron is a millionth of a meter.
To put this in perspective, a human hair is around 80 microns thick; the human eye can detect objects down to about 40 microns. Fluids at these pressures are capable of acting like water jet cutters, especially if there is even microscopic hard particle contamination in the fuel.
The result is scoring and abrading of critical injection pump and injector components. For conventional low pressure fuel injection systems the critical particle size to initiate abrasive wear is about microns. With HPCR injection, the critical particle size is approximately microns.
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